Averaging. "To 'average' means that separate calculations are to be made for loading and discharging and any time saved in one operation is to be set against any excess time used in the other." (Charterparty Laytime Definitions 1980)

AH range. A range of ports between Antwerp and Hamburg in Europe. If the owner agrees with this range of ports he accepts that Antwerp and Hamburg are warranted by the Charterer as being "safe" but he may have to dispute the "safety" of any other port nominated within the range. This description of a range of ports is sometimes abbreviated to "AH.R".

Arbitration agreement. This is an agreement by the parties to a contract (for example a charter )to submit all or some disputes between them in any legal relationship they may have. The "Model Law" adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in 1985 describes an "arbitration agreement" as follows:

API gravity. In the oil industry influenced by the United States the “American Petroleum Institute” scale of mass/volume is used.

AA AA. Always afloat, always accessible.

Always afloat. In order to prevent a vessel from being ordered to proceed to a berth where she cannot load or discharge without touching the ground or which can only be reached safely after discharging part of the cargo into lighters or which can only be reached with spring tide, the so-called "always safely afloat clause" is inserted in the charterparty. 

AG (Arabian Gulf). This suggests a range of ports in the Arabian Gulf (Iranian or Persian Gulf) where a ship can load or discharge cargo.

 

Apparel. The cargo capacity may be defined in a charterparty as follows:


“... tons, not exceeding what she can reasonably stow and carry in addition to her tackle, apparel, provisions, bunkers and furniture.”

The word “apparel” relates to the equipment of the vessel such as anchors, chains, lifeboats, etc.

 

Articles of Agreement. This was the name given to the document in which the terms of the crew employment agreement was contained. Under some flags, the Crew Agreement is still called the “Articles”. The name came from the different paragraphs in the document, each one numbered as “Article 1”, “Article 2”, and so on. The Agreement was also sometimes called “ship’s articles” or “shipping articles” and indicated that the contract was between the seaman and the master. 

 

Antitrust laws. When the liner conference system became formalised in the 19th century, one of the main functions was that freight rates on an agreed route would be fixed between the members to the conference. 

 

"Act of God".When some events take place preventing one party from fully carrying out his obligations under a charterparty and that event occurs without any human intervention, this person is relieved from any liability to compensate the other party to the contract. 

AWRI Additional War Risk Insurance. This is an extra amount paid to the owner of a time-chartered vessel if the ship is ordered to a port or an area in which war or hostilities are taking place and the shipowner's insurers require an additional insurance premium for the vessel to be considered to be covered against risks in that place. 

 

Arrest or seizure under legal process. A ship may be arrested for a maritime claim against it through legal action, as a guarantee for payment for damages. Before a ship can be arrested, a court must approve such action. The procedures for ship arrest vary between countries.

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