Cargo and bills of lading. The bill of lading is essentially a receipt for cargo. Therefore the statements in the document connecting the bill of lading and cargo are of great importance to the buyer of the goods, the consignee or endorsee, the banks in a documentary credits system and the possibility of liability of the earner. Statements can refer to the nature, condition, quality and quantity of the cargo.

 

Contractual liabilities. Liabilities incurred under contracts necessary for the normal operation of a ship, such as towage contracts, indemnities to port authorities, indemnities to stevedoring companies.

Class surveyors’ assistance to vessel. If a vessel has sustained damage to such an extent that her seaworthiness may be affected, the master will contact the surveyor of the classification society, in order to ascertain what repairs have to be carried out for the maintenance of class.

Concentrates. This is a material in small particle form which results from a processing of natural ore. The main hazard associated with concentrates is that moisture entrained in the particles may settle out and the surface reach a nearly fluid state which will affect the ship’s stability if the cargo shifts. Moreover, some concentrates, such as iron concentrates produced when iron is crushed dry, contain sulphur so that if concentrates become damp the sulphur reacts with the oxygen in the surrounding air to produce heat. Compartments containing concentrates should not be ventilated in order to reduce the oxygen content.

 

CIM. The full, French name for this international Convention which relates to the carriage of goods by rail is “Convention Internationale Concernant le Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer”. The CLM Convention applies mostly to intermodal transport in Europe. The contract of carriage under the CIM is the “CIM consignment note”, similar to a bill of lading for ocean carriage.

 

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