Collision bulkhead. (Sometimes called a forepeak bulkhead.) All vessels must be fitted with a minimum number of bulkheads. (See Bulkheads above.)
Centreline bulkhead. Some general cargo, tramp vessels, were fitted with centerline bulkheads extending from the bulkheads to the hatchways. Apart from increasing the longitudinal strength, such centerline bulkheads mean a considerable saving in expenses for shifting boards required by vessels carrying grain in bulk. Such grain tight shifting boards had only to be fitted in the lower holds over a distance equal to the length of the hatchways.
Combined transport and bills of lading. In modern international trade and sales of goods the transport of goods by sea alone is no longer of greatest significance. Containers, in particular, have made it easier for transport of the same unit to be carried by different modes of transport. Sales of goods and delivery of goods are now commonly made on a "door-to-door" basis. "Combined transport" is the term used where goods are successively carried by at least two modes of transport, for example, by road, rail, inland waterway, sea and air.
CHOPT (Charterer's option). If the charterers has an option to nominate any detail in a charter, for example, the "tolerance" percentage of the quantity of cargo to be loaded, this abbreviation is used in fixture telexes and other communications. For example, it may be that the cargo to be loaded is "50,000 metric tons 10pct. CHOPT". The charterers are allowed to require between 45,000 and 55,000 tonnes of cargo to be loaded, paying freight accordingly.
Cargo capacity. This is the quantity of cargo the ship can carry or the volume of the space the ship has for cargo. It is found in the charterparty clause describing the ship and is part of the shipowner's warranties about the ship. If the ship does not meet the description given by the owner, he could become liable for a "breach of warranty" and have to pay compensation or damages or perhaps even a "breach of condition", allowing the charterers to cancel ("repudiate") the charter.
Charterers' bills of lading. The relationship between charterparties and bills of lading can range from a simple one, where the bill of lading from a shipowner to a charterer/shipper has the status only of a receipt for cargo, to a complex one, where, for example, a charterer issues a bill of lading on his own form but includes a "demise clause" which states that the person issuing the bill of lading is not the owner nor demise-charterer of the vessel and the holder of the bill of lading is then left with the uncertainty of whom to sue for loss, damage or delay of the cargo carried under the bill of lading.
Charterer's agents. In charterparties covering a fixture on an f.i.o. (free in and out) basis, which implies that the loading and discharging expenses are for the charterer's account, charterers often insist upon the right to appoint their agents to attend to the ship's business at "both ends" (i.e., loading and discharging ports) at a fee.