Cargo-Quantity. The characteristic of the bill of lading as a receipt for cargo becomes important when it is a receipt for the quantity of cargo.
Classification surveys. Classification societies carry out various surveys on behalf of governments, particularly in order to ensure that the vessel complies with relevant standards that are required to be met for the issue of essential certificates, such as the Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate (SAFCON).
COFC (Container on Flat Car). This form of transport is related to inter-modal transport in which a container with cargo in it would have been transported by sea or by road to a railhead and then loaded on to a flat rail-car for the remainder of the journey by rail. The deregulation of the railways in the United States in 1980 was extended to the intermodal COFC transport in March 1981 and this is one method of transporting goods which may have been the forerunner to other intermodal transport methods operated for containers, such as the DST or “Double stack trains” or the “piggy-back trains” operated by some railway companies and even traditional ocean carriers in the U.S.
Container flow management (CFM). This expression is related to container logistics. This approach to logistics involved the management of the fleet of containers themselves, not the fleet of container vessels and the spaces (or “slots”) on board the vessels. The management also involves the movement of a container from one point to another without consideration of the actual mode of transport. The traditional carrier thus becomes a true “transport organiser”.
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA). Such legislation is introduced by countries to make uniform rules for the carriage of goods by sea, usually under bills of lading. The legislation generally implements the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules and applies only to hills of lading and waybills and this is stated in the "Clause Paramount" in the charterparty. Examples of legislation are: the U.K. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 and the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of the United States (1936).