Cargo-Quantity. The characteristic of the bill of lading as a receipt for cargo becomes important when it is a receipt for the quantity of cargo.
Centreline bulkhead. Some general cargo, tramp vessels, were fitted with centerline bulkheads extending from the bulkheads to the hatchways. Apart from increasing the longitudinal strength, such centerline bulkheads mean a considerable saving in expenses for shifting boards required by vessels carrying grain in bulk. Such grain tight shifting boards had only to be fitted in the lower holds over a distance equal to the length of the hatchways.
COFC (Container on Flat Car). This form of transport is related to inter-modal transport in which a container with cargo in it would have been transported by sea or by road to a railhead and then loaded on to a flat rail-car for the remainder of the journey by rail. The deregulation of the railways in the United States in 1980 was extended to the intermodal COFC transport in March 1981 and this is one method of transporting goods which may have been the forerunner to other intermodal transport methods operated for containers, such as the DST or “Double stack trains” or the “piggy-back trains” operated by some railway companies and even traditional ocean carriers in the U.S.
Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA). Such legislation is introduced by countries to make uniform rules for the carriage of goods by sea, usually under bills of lading. The legislation generally implements the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules and applies only to hills of lading and waybills and this is stated in the "Clause Paramount" in the charterparty. Examples of legislation are: the U.K. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 and the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of the United States (1936).