Charterer's agents. In charterparties covering a fixture on an f.i.o. (free in and out) basis, which implies that the loading and discharging expenses are for the charterer's account, charterers often insist upon the right to appoint their agents to attend to the ship's business at "both ends" (i.e., loading and discharging ports) at a fee.

Closing date. The closing date for a vessel is the latest date for delivery of goods for shipment on board the vessel. This expression is generally used in the sailing schedules or advertisements of regular liner services.


Clear day. This usually means that the day on which the Notice of Readiness is given and the day on which the notice period expires are not included in the notice period. In this situation the expression refers only to the notice period.

Classification. To be classed with Lloyd’s, approval is necessary for the constructional plans, the materials used and the constructional methods and standards, as observed by the surveyor.

Chartering brokers. Chartering brokers act as intermediaries between shipowners seeking employment for their vessels and charterers-requiring the services of a ship.

Cargo oil pump (COP). This is a pump used on board tankers for discharging cargo and loading or discharging ballast. The pumps are usually located at the bottom of the pump room and can be of various types, e.g., the centrifugal turbine type or the steam driven reciprocating, duplex type.


Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA). Such legislation is introduced by countries to make uniform rules for the carriage of goods by sea, usually under bills of lading. The legislation generally implements the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules and applies only to hills of lading and waybills and this is stated in the "Clause Paramount" in the charterparty. Examples of legislation are: the U.K. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 and the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of the United States (1936).

Cargo-Nature and condition. If the nature of cargo is unusual the statement in the bill of lading should not be a very detailed description of the cargo without an attached certificate from an independent body, such as a surveyor or laboratory, to ensure that the-cargo matches the description.

CAF (Currency adjustment factor). Liner conferences are fundamentally international in character. The member lines are based in different countries and their domestic revenue and expenses figures will generally be in their own currencies.