COFC (Container on Flat Car). This form of transport is related to inter-modal transport in which a container with cargo in it would have been transported by sea or by road to a railhead and then loaded on to a flat rail-car for the remainder of the journey by rail. The deregulation of the railways in the United States in 1980 was extended to the intermodal COFC transport in March 1981 and this is one method of transporting goods which may have been the forerunner to other intermodal transport methods operated for containers, such as the DST or “Double stack trains” or the “piggy-back trains” operated by some railway companies and even traditional ocean carriers in the U.S.


Chartering brokers. Chartering brokers act as intermediaries between shipowners seeking employment for their vessels and charterers-requiring the services of a ship.

Cargo measurement. The EXXONVOY 84 tanker voyage charter form contains a comprehensive "Cargo measurement clause". Before loading, the master is required to measure the on-board quantities of oil, water and sediment residues, which are segregated in all holding tanks and slop tanks.

Cargo oil pump (COP). This is a pump used on board tankers for discharging cargo and loading or discharging ballast. The pumps are usually located at the bottom of the pump room and can be of various types, e.g., the centrifugal turbine type or the steam driven reciprocating, duplex type.


Cargo-Nature and condition. If the nature of cargo is unusual the statement in the bill of lading should not be a very detailed description of the cargo without an attached certificate from an independent body, such as a surveyor or laboratory, to ensure that the-cargo matches the description.

Classification. To be classed with Lloyd’s, approval is necessary for the constructional plans, the materials used and the constructional methods and standards, as observed by the surveyor.

Closing date. The closing date for a vessel is the latest date for delivery of goods for shipment on board the vessel. This expression is generally used in the sailing schedules or advertisements of regular liner services.


Coiled ship. This ship type would most probably be an oil tanker or a tanker to carry liquids in bulk. It would be provided with coils through which steam is passed to heat the liquid to reduce its “viscosity” and enable it to be pumped more easily.


Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA). Such legislation is introduced by countries to make uniform rules for the carriage of goods by sea, usually under bills of lading. The legislation generally implements the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules and applies only to hills of lading and waybills and this is stated in the "Clause Paramount" in the charterparty. Examples of legislation are: the U.K. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 and the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of the United States (1936).

Combination carrier. Fundamentally, this is a vessel designed to carry either liquid or dry bulk cargoes. If a vessel is a specialist vessel, for example, only carrying crude oil, there is a disadvantage to the shipowner because the vessel would have to be ballasted on one leg of each passage.

Cargo retention clause. When liquid cargoes are discharged from tankers differences can occur between the quantities stated in bills of lading to have been loaded and the quantities measured on discharge.