Brokerage (or Commission). It is customary to express the remuneration for the broker's time and efforts in negotiating and arranging the contract as a certain percentage of the money earned by the shipowner. (In marine insurance, the broker is generally paid a commission by the underwriter although the assured is the broker's client and the services are for the client.) In shipbroking, the term "brokerage" is generally preferable instead of "commission" because the latter term is usually related to the charterer's reward as "address commission".

Ceiling.The ceiling consists of wooden planks laid on top of the double bottom tanks. The planks are laid longitudinally and prevent contact between the cargo and the double bottom.

Cargo-Quality. A description in the bill of lading as to the quality of goods does not bind the carrier. The person signing and issuing the bill of lading is not considered to have the expertise nor the duty to ascertain quality. The shipowner can adduce evidence to show that the goods were not of the quality stated on the bill of lading.


CENTROCON. This charterparty approved by the Chamber of Shipping of the United Kingdom is in general use for shipments of grain from the River Plate to all parts of the world. It was published in 1914.

Cover note. A contract of marine insurance concluded when the proposal of the assured is accepted by the insurer, whether the policy is then issued or not. For the purpose of showing when the proposal was accepted, reference may be made to the slip or cover note or other customary memorandum of the contract, although it may be unstamped.

Convenient speed. The stipulation in a voyage charterparty that the vessel, after completion of loading, shall proceed with all possible speed to port of destination, is usually changed into "with all convenient speed" or "with all reasonable speed" The latter expression eliminates any controversy, which may arise about the speed actually maintained on the voyage.

Cross trades. On trade routes between two places or countries the ships belonging to each country may have a large share of the trade but ships belonging to other countries may be allowed to carry cargo as “cross traders”.

Charterparty bills of lading. In "Charterers' bills of lading" (above)' emphasis was laid on the identity of the carrier and whether this person was the charterer. The charterparty and the bill of lading are also connected usually by incorporation of charterparty terms and conditions into the bill of lading.

Charterparty. This is the document that contains the details of the charter or contract. While the shipowner and charterer are called the "parties to the charter", the word "party" in "charterparty" originates from the old Latin phrase for the contract to use a ship.

Container leasing. Containers may be offered for carriage of goods by the carriers themselves or the carriers may not actually own the containers, rather leasing them from lessors. Other parties, such as shippers, may also wish to lease a container. Therefore the containers can be owned by the ocean carriers, the lessors and also other transport operators, such as railway companies, shippers C themselves and large freight forwarders.

Carrier. The carrier of goods under a bill of lading to which the. Hague-Visby Rules apply includes the shipowner or the charterer who enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper.

CFS (Container freight station). This is the name given to a container base where goods in quantities smaller than that which will fill an entire container (that is, “break bulk cargo” or a “less than container load” or “LCL”) are dispatched for stowing into a container (“stuffing” or “consolidating”). The CFS facilities may be offered by freight forwarders or even by carriers.


Container sizes. The sizes of containers depend mainly on their external dimensions, so that, for example, a container can be an ISO standard “Series 1 Freight container, Rating 1AA” with external dimensions of 40 feet (length) x 8 feet (width) x 8 feet 6 inches (height). The dimensions are used in either imperial or metric units. Although much of the world has become metricated, the “box” or container is still referred to by its imperial units, for example, a FEU is a forty-foot equivalent unit (of space occupied).

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