Charter. The contract to carry goods by sea or to hire or lease or use a ship. "To charter" means to enter into the contract. The contract can be for a period of time ("time charter" or "bareboat charter") or for one or more voyages ("voyage charter").

 

Complement. The entire crew of a vessel is called the “complement”. The complement can be subdivided into, for example, the officer complement, and the rating complement.

 

Calendar month. A vessel may be fixed on a time charter basis, either for the period occupied by a certain voyage; e.g., "for one voyage from the UK and/or Continent to Australia via port or ports in charterers' option" or for the term of ". . . calendar months, commencing from time of delivery at . . ." the port agreed upon.

Contractual liabilities. Liabilities incurred under contracts necessary for the normal operation of a ship, such as towage contracts, indemnities to port authorities, indemnities to stevedoring companies.

Cargo-Quality. A description in the bill of lading as to the quality of goods does not bind the carrier. The person signing and issuing the bill of lading is not considered to have the expertise nor the duty to ascertain quality. The shipowner can adduce evidence to show that the goods were not of the quality stated on the bill of lading.

 

CFS (Container freight station). This is the name given to a container base where goods in quantities smaller than that which will fill an entire container (that is, “break bulk cargo” or a “less than container load” or “LCL”) are dispatched for stowing into a container (“stuffing” or “consolidating”). The CFS facilities may be offered by freight forwarders or even by carriers.

 

Centre of gravity (G). The line of action of the weight (force) of a body acts vertically downwards through this point, named “G”. For a uniform block, G is at the centre. For a ship, the position of G depends on the various weights in the ship.

 

Centre of buoyancy (B). This is the geometric centre of the under water shape or volume of a floating object. The buoyancy force provided by the liquid in which the object floats acts vertically upwards through B.

 

CMI. Comite Maritime International. A group of international lawyers and law associations specialising in maritime law, based in Antwerp, Belgium. CMI is responsible for some documents used in chartering, e.g., for the "Charterparty Laytime Definitions". The CMI has also compiled a list of arbitrators, well-experienced in maritime arbitration and able to decide disputes arising from charters. Parties to a charter dispute can choose arbitrators from this list.

 

Collision Liability. Around the middle of the 19th century, hull underwriters decided to extend the hull and machinery policy to embrace legal liabilities incurred by the assured in consequence of collision between the insured ship and any other ship or vessel. Liabilities resulting from contract with anything other than another ship or vessel were excluded from the cover, as were loss of life or personal injury.

Continuation clause. Hull Time policies can contain a “continuation” clause. As a rule, time policies are made for a maximum of 12 months, but obviously it is impossible to judge in advance whether the vessel will be at sea or not on expiration of the policy.

Colliery working days. This is a description of type of laytime depending on the ordinary working hours of the colliery from which the coal will be delivered to the vessel. The working days are related to normal times and in normal circumstances. Colliery holidays will be "holidays" if an exception to laytime exists in the charterparty (for example, "SHEX"). If the workers in a colliery are on strike, the delay is not excepted from the laytime, unless, of course, there is an appropriate "strike clause", unless a Sunday or holiday occurs during the strike.

 

Calls or Premiums. Some mutual associations term the payments for cover as “calls” while others term them as “premiums”. The concept of mutuality is that each member protects the others and this is done by levying “calls” rather than the businessman’s “premium”.