Carrier. The carrier of goods under a bill of lading to which the. Hague-Visby Rules apply includes the shipowner or the charterer who enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper.
Charterparty bills of lading. In "Charterers' bills of lading" (above)' emphasis was laid on the identity of the carrier and whether this person was the charterer. The charterparty and the bill of lading are also connected usually by incorporation of charterparty terms and conditions into the bill of lading.
CY (Container yard). This is the container base from where the carriage will commence or where the ocean carriage ends. It is usually in the container port facility and is under the control of the ocean carrier.
The CY can also be under the control of other carriers, for example, at a railway yard or at an airport.
Container leasing. Containers may be offered for carriage of goods by the carriers themselves or the carriers may not actually own the containers, rather leasing them from lessors. Other parties, such as shippers, may also wish to lease a container. Therefore the containers can be owned by the ocean carriers, the lessors and also other transport operators, such as railway companies, shippers C themselves and large freight forwarders.
Collision Liability. Around the middle of the 19th century, hull underwriters decided to extend the hull and machinery policy to embrace legal liabilities incurred by the assured in consequence of collision between the insured ship and any other ship or vessel. Liabilities resulting from contract with anything other than another ship or vessel were excluded from the cover, as were loss of life or personal injury.