Container leasing. Containers may be offered for carriage of goods by the carriers themselves or the carriers may not actually own the containers, rather leasing them from lessors. Other parties, such as shippers, may also wish to lease a container. Therefore the containers can be owned by the ocean carriers, the lessors and also other transport operators, such as railway companies, shippers C themselves and large freight forwarders.

Cofferdam. In oil tankers the oil tanks are separated from the engine room by means of a cofferdam formed by two transverse bulkheads. The cofferdam extends over the entire breadth of the vessel and prevents leakage from the oil tanks to the engine room or diesel-oil bunkers. The pump rooms are also separated from adjacent tanks by cofferdams.

 

Cleaning. When an oil tanker or chemical tanker carries one cargo, it must usually be cleaned before the next cargo and also to reduce the "clingage" and residues on the parts of the ship's structure inside the cargo spaces.

Calendar month. A vessel may be fixed on a time charter basis, either for the period occupied by a certain voyage; e.g., "for one voyage from the UK and/or Continent to Australia via port or ports in charterers' option" or for the term of ". . . calendar months, commencing from time of delivery at . . ." the port agreed upon.

Consol. This expression is an abbreviation found in sailing schedules and advertisements of liner services.

Closed conference. This type of liner conference restricts membership in order to protect the members’ market share. It is the most common type of conference.

Ceiling.The ceiling consists of wooden planks laid on top of the double bottom tanks. The planks are laid longitudinally and prevent contact between the cargo and the double bottom.

Cargo and bills of lading. The bill of lading is essentially a receipt for cargo. Therefore the statements in the document connecting the bill of lading and cargo are of great importance to the buyer of the goods, the consignee or endorsee, the banks in a documentary credits system and the possibility of liability of the earner. Statements can refer to the nature, condition, quality and quantity of the cargo.

 

Charterer. The person or corporation hiring a ship for the carriage of goods or passengers (either a "time Charterer" or a "voyage Charterer") or leasing the ship for his own management and control (a "bareboat/demise Charterer").

 

Consortium. A group of shipowners may agree to offer their ships to an organisation formed by the members of the group for the organisation (the "consortium") to operate. "Shipping pools" are one form of consortia, generally operating in the tramp shipping, bulk trades. In liner trades, liner conferences fulfil much the same function except that each member company operates its ship independent of a centralised control organisation. In chartering practice, the administration organisation of a consortium or shipping pool can charter ships in or -out as necessary to carry out its cargo commitments or earn acceptable revenue.

 

Contamination. If a cargo which is sensitive for some reason is damaged by the nature of another cargo or substance, the former is “contaminated”. This would be the situation if one grade of oil, e.g., a clean oil product on board a tanker, was loaded into a tank that was insufficiently cleaned.

Carrier. The carrier of goods under a bill of lading to which the. Hague-Visby Rules apply includes the shipowner or the charterer who enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper.