Contractual liabilities. Liabilities incurred under contracts necessary for the normal operation of a ship, such as towage contracts, indemnities to port authorities, indemnities to stevedoring companies.
Paramount clause. (Also termed Clause Paramount.) This clause is generally found in a bill of lading but can also be found in a charterparty. The main purpose of such a clause is to incorporate the terms and conditions of the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules (or the Hamburg Rules) into the document which is (or which evidences) the contract of carriage of goods by sea. The Paramount clause can also incorporate particular legislation, such as the United States Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936.
Colliery scale. Scale rates can be incorporated into a charterparty depending on the place of loading. These are rates, which are set by organisations, which publish standard-form- charterparties after discussion with shipowners and collieries at the ports of loading. The scale rates also contain rates for demurrage.