Centre of gravity (G). The line of action of the weight (force) of a body acts vertically downwards through this point, named “G”. For a uniform block, G is at the centre. For a ship, the position of G depends on the various weights in the ship.
CIM. The full, French name for this international Convention which relates to the carriage of goods by rail is “Convention Internationale Concernant le Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer”. The CLM Convention applies mostly to intermodal transport in Europe. The contract of carriage under the CIM is the “CIM consignment note”, similar to a bill of lading for ocean carriage.
Cargo and bills of lading. The bill of lading is essentially a receipt for cargo. Therefore the statements in the document connecting the bill of lading and cargo are of great importance to the buyer of the goods, the consignee or endorsee, the banks in a documentary credits system and the possibility of liability of the earner. Statements can refer to the nature, condition, quality and quantity of the cargo.
Consignment clause. A charterparty may stipulate the vessel will be consigned to owners' agents or charterers' agents for inward or outward business. If charterers are entitled to appoint agents at port of loading or discharge the owner must use the services of the charterers' agent and pay for those services.
Consortium. A group of shipowners may agree to offer their ships to an organisation formed by the members of the group for the organisation (the "consortium") to operate. "Shipping pools" are one form of consortia, generally operating in the tramp shipping, bulk trades. In liner trades, liner conferences fulfil much the same function except that each member company operates its ship independent of a centralised control organisation. In chartering practice, the administration organisation of a consortium or shipping pool can charter ships in or -out as necessary to carry out its cargo commitments or earn acceptable revenue.