Consol. This expression is an abbreviation found in sailing schedules and advertisements of liner services.

Colliery scale. Scale rates can be incorporated into a charterparty depending on the place of loading. These are rates, which are set by organisations, which publish standard-form- charterparties after discussion with shipowners and collieries at the ports of loading. The scale rates also contain rates for demurrage.

 

Continuation clause. Hull Time policies can contain a “continuation” clause. As a rule, time policies are made for a maximum of 12 months, but obviously it is impossible to judge in advance whether the vessel will be at sea or not on expiration of the policy.

Cargo and bills of lading. The bill of lading is essentially a receipt for cargo. Therefore the statements in the document connecting the bill of lading and cargo are of great importance to the buyer of the goods, the consignee or endorsee, the banks in a documentary credits system and the possibility of liability of the earner. Statements can refer to the nature, condition, quality and quantity of the cargo.

 

Complement. The entire crew of a vessel is called the “complement”. The complement can be subdivided into, for example, the officer complement, and the rating complement.

 

CY (Container yard). This is the container base from where the carriage will commence or where the ocean carriage ends. It is usually in the container port facility and is under the control of the ocean carrier. 

The CY can also be under the control of other carriers, for example, at a railway yard or at an airport.

 

Charterer. The person or corporation hiring a ship for the carriage of goods or passengers (either a "time Charterer" or a "voyage Charterer") or leasing the ship for his own management and control (a "bareboat/demise Charterer").

 

Concentrates. This is a material in small particle form which results from a processing of natural ore. The main hazard associated with concentrates is that moisture entrained in the particles may settle out and the surface reach a nearly fluid state which will affect the ship’s stability if the cargo shifts. Moreover, some concentrates, such as iron concentrates produced when iron is crushed dry, contain sulphur so that if concentrates become damp the sulphur reacts with the oxygen in the surrounding air to produce heat. Compartments containing concentrates should not be ventilated in order to reduce the oxygen content.

 

Calendar month. A vessel may be fixed on a time charter basis, either for the period occupied by a certain voyage; e.g., "for one voyage from the UK and/or Continent to Australia via port or ports in charterers' option" or for the term of ". . . calendar months, commencing from time of delivery at . . ." the port agreed upon.

CIM. The full, French name for this international Convention which relates to the carriage of goods by rail is “Convention Internationale Concernant le Transport des Marchandises par Chemin de Fer”. The CLM Convention applies mostly to intermodal transport in Europe. The contract of carriage under the CIM is the “CIM consignment note”, similar to a bill of lading for ocean carriage.

 

Container sizes. The sizes of containers depend mainly on their external dimensions, so that, for example, a container can be an ISO standard “Series 1 Freight container, Rating 1AA” with external dimensions of 40 feet (length) x 8 feet (width) x 8 feet 6 inches (height). The dimensions are used in either imperial or metric units. Although much of the world has become metricated, the “box” or container is still referred to by its imperial units, for example, a FEU is a forty-foot equivalent unit (of space occupied).

Cartel. This is a price-fixing body formed of providers or suppliers of goods or services. A liner conference can be considered to be a cartel to fix the freight rates.

 

Contractual liabilities. Liabilities incurred under contracts necessary for the normal operation of a ship, such as towage contracts, indemnities to port authorities, indemnities to stevedoring companies.

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