Brokerage (or Commission). It is customary to express the remuneration for the broker's time and efforts in negotiating and arranging the contract as a certain percentage of the money earned by the shipowner. (In marine insurance, the broker is generally paid a commission by the underwriter although the assured is the broker's client and the services are for the client.) In shipbroking, the term "brokerage" is generally preferable instead of "commission" because the latter term is usually related to the charterer's reward as "address commission".

Colliery turn. This refers to the order in which vessels are taken into the loading and/or discharging berth. This may change the requirements for the commencement of laytime.

Centre of gravity (G). The line of action of the weight (force) of a body acts vertically downwards through this point, named “G”. For a uniform block, G is at the centre. For a ship, the position of G depends on the various weights in the ship.

 

Consignment clause. A charterparty may stipulate the vessel will be consigned to owners' agents or charterers' agents for inward or outward business. If charterers are entitled to appoint agents at port of loading or discharge the owner must use the services of the charterers' agent and pay for those services.

 

Concentrates. This is a material in small particle form which results from a processing of natural ore. The main hazard associated with concentrates is that moisture entrained in the particles may settle out and the surface reach a nearly fluid state which will affect the ship’s stability if the cargo shifts. Moreover, some concentrates, such as iron concentrates produced when iron is crushed dry, contain sulphur so that if concentrates become damp the sulphur reacts with the oxygen in the surrounding air to produce heat. Compartments containing concentrates should not be ventilated in order to reduce the oxygen content.

 

Charter. The contract to carry goods by sea or to hire or lease or use a ship. "To charter" means to enter into the contract. The contract can be for a period of time ("time charter" or "bareboat charter") or for one or more voyages ("voyage charter").

 

Consortium. A group of shipowners may agree to offer their ships to an organisation formed by the members of the group for the organisation (the "consortium") to operate. "Shipping pools" are one form of consortia, generally operating in the tramp shipping, bulk trades. In liner trades, liner conferences fulfil much the same function except that each member company operates its ship independent of a centralised control organisation. In chartering practice, the administration organisation of a consortium or shipping pool can charter ships in or -out as necessary to carry out its cargo commitments or earn acceptable revenue.

 

Cover note. A contract of marine insurance concluded when the proposal of the assured is accepted by the insurer, whether the policy is then issued or not. For the purpose of showing when the proposal was accepted, reference may be made to the slip or cover note or other customary memorandum of the contract, although it may be unstamped.

Colliery working days. This is a description of type of laytime depending on the ordinary working hours of the colliery from which the coal will be delivered to the vessel. The working days are related to normal times and in normal circumstances. Colliery holidays will be "holidays" if an exception to laytime exists in the charterparty (for example, "SHEX"). If the workers in a colliery are on strike, the delay is not excepted from the laytime, unless, of course, there is an appropriate "strike clause", unless a Sunday or holiday occurs during the strike.

 

Closed conference. This type of liner conference restricts membership in order to protect the members’ market share. It is the most common type of conference.

CY (Container yard). This is the container base from where the carriage will commence or where the ocean carriage ends. It is usually in the container port facility and is under the control of the ocean carrier. 

The CY can also be under the control of other carriers, for example, at a railway yard or at an airport.

 

Cargo and bills of lading. The bill of lading is essentially a receipt for cargo. Therefore the statements in the document connecting the bill of lading and cargo are of great importance to the buyer of the goods, the consignee or endorsee, the banks in a documentary credits system and the possibility of liability of the earner. Statements can refer to the nature, condition, quality and quantity of the cargo.

 

Colliery scale. Scale rates can be incorporated into a charterparty depending on the place of loading. These are rates, which are set by organisations, which publish standard-form- charterparties after discussion with shipowners and collieries at the ports of loading. The scale rates also contain rates for demurrage.

 

Cartel. This is a price-fixing body formed of providers or suppliers of goods or services. A liner conference can be considered to be a cartel to fix the freight rates.