Concentrates. This is a material in small particle form which results from a processing of natural ore. The main hazard associated with concentrates is that moisture entrained in the particles may settle out and the surface reach a nearly fluid state which will affect the ship’s stability if the cargo shifts. Moreover, some concentrates, such as iron concentrates produced when iron is crushed dry, contain sulphur so that if concentrates become damp the sulphur reacts with the oxygen in the surrounding air to produce heat. Compartments containing concentrates should not be ventilated in order to reduce the oxygen content.

 

Cross trades. On trade routes between two places or countries the ships belonging to each country may have a large share of the trade but ships belonging to other countries may be allowed to carry cargo as “cross traders”.

Colliery working days. This is a description of type of laytime depending on the ordinary working hours of the colliery from which the coal will be delivered to the vessel. The working days are related to normal times and in normal circumstances. Colliery holidays will be "holidays" if an exception to laytime exists in the charterparty (for example, "SHEX"). If the workers in a colliery are on strike, the delay is not excepted from the laytime, unless, of course, there is an appropriate "strike clause", unless a Sunday or holiday occurs during the strike.

 

Calls or Premiums. Some mutual associations term the payments for cover as “calls” while others term them as “premiums”. The concept of mutuality is that each member protects the others and this is done by levying “calls” rather than the businessman’s “premium”.

Class surveyors’ assistance to vessel. If a vessel has sustained damage to such an extent that her seaworthiness may be affected, the master will contact the surveyor of the classification society, in order to ascertain what repairs have to be carried out for the maintenance of class.

CMI. Comite Maritime International. A group of international lawyers and law associations specialising in maritime law, based in Antwerp, Belgium. CMI is responsible for some documents used in chartering, e.g., for the "Charterparty Laytime Definitions". The CMI has also compiled a list of arbitrators, well-experienced in maritime arbitration and able to decide disputes arising from charters. Parties to a charter dispute can choose arbitrators from this list.

 

Cover note. A contract of marine insurance concluded when the proposal of the assured is accepted by the insurer, whether the policy is then issued or not. For the purpose of showing when the proposal was accepted, reference may be made to the slip or cover note or other customary memorandum of the contract, although it may be unstamped.

Complement. The entire crew of a vessel is called the “complement”. The complement can be subdivided into, for example, the officer complement, and the rating complement.

 

Colliery scale. Scale rates can be incorporated into a charterparty depending on the place of loading. These are rates, which are set by organisations, which publish standard-form- charterparties after discussion with shipowners and collieries at the ports of loading. The scale rates also contain rates for demurrage.

 

Calendar month. A vessel may be fixed on a time charter basis, either for the period occupied by a certain voyage; e.g., "for one voyage from the UK and/or Continent to Australia via port or ports in charterers' option" or for the term of ". . . calendar months, commencing from time of delivery at . . ." the port agreed upon.

Cargo and bills of lading. The bill of lading is essentially a receipt for cargo. Therefore the statements in the document connecting the bill of lading and cargo are of great importance to the buyer of the goods, the consignee or endorsee, the banks in a documentary credits system and the possibility of liability of the earner. Statements can refer to the nature, condition, quality and quantity of the cargo.

 

Colliery turn. This refers to the order in which vessels are taken into the loading and/or discharging berth. This may change the requirements for the commencement of laytime.

Cleaning. When an oil tanker or chemical tanker carries one cargo, it must usually be cleaned before the next cargo and also to reduce the "clingage" and residues on the parts of the ship's structure inside the cargo spaces.

Brokerage (or Commission). It is customary to express the remuneration for the broker's time and efforts in negotiating and arranging the contract as a certain percentage of the money earned by the shipowner. (In marine insurance, the broker is generally paid a commission by the underwriter although the assured is the broker's client and the services are for the client.) In shipbroking, the term "brokerage" is generally preferable instead of "commission" because the latter term is usually related to the charterer's reward as "address commission".

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