Days. When a charterparty provides for laytime to be fixed or calculable this can be referred to a number of "days". The number of days is sometimes called "laydays" but this term is better used for the "Laydays and Cancelling" clause.

Dock charter. A "dock" is an area within a port within which cargo can be loaded of discharged. It can be enclosed by "dock walls" or "breakwaters". In relation to chartering, a dock can be a named destination for the ship to be an "arrived ship" and laytime commencing under a voyage charter or hire commencing under a time charter. A dock, as a destination in a dock charter, is less specific than a berth (a place within a dock or port) under a berth charter and more specific than a port in a port charter.

Depth. The depth is the vertical distance measured from the keel to the deck. The extreme depth is the depth measured at the ship’s side from the uppermost continuous deck to the lower point of the keel. The moulded depth is measured from the top of the keel plate (the “base line”) to the underside (that is, the heel) of the deck beam at the ship’s side amidships.

 

Deductibles. Whilst there is no provision in the standard cargo clauses to apply any form of deductible, there is always a deductible expressed in a hull policy on full conditions.

Dunnage. Materials such as timber battens, boards, mats, plastic sheets, paper and even inflatable bags may be necessary to prevent cargo from shifting, to prevent sweat damage to the cargo and to separate different lots of cargo.

Dual rate contract. This is one form of a “loyalty contract” by which a shipper obtains an immediate lower freight rate by agreeing to use a particular carrier’s or conference’s services.

 

Deck cargoes. Many cargoes can be carried on deck because of their size or weight of individual units. Ondeck cargo is prone to damage and/or loss overboard and the carrier should try to reduce his liability accordingly.

Delivery orders: At the request of shippers, consignees or endorsees, delivery orders may sometimes be issued by the agents of the shipowner for part of the goods shipped under bills of lading.

Double bottom. The double bottom, extending from the forepeak to afterpeak tank, considerably increases the safety of the vessel in case of serious bottom damage by grounding, which might otherwise result in flooding of the cargo holds or engine room. Moreover, the double bottom, which is subdivided into a number of tanks, is suitable for carriage of water ballast, fuel oil, fresh water etc., and increases the longitudinal strength of the vessel.

The double bottom tanks are accessible from the ship’s holds or tunnel by means of manholes, which are closed by watertight covers with bolts.

 

Disbursements. This expression covers all payments made by the ship’s agents for port charges, stevedoring expenses, tug hire, customs fees, stores, bunkers, water, etc., on behalf of owners. The agents may charge a certain disbursements’ commission on such advances, e.g., 2½ per cent.

 

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