Days. When a charterparty provides for laytime to be fixed or calculable this can be referred to a number of "days".

Depth. The depth is the vertical distance measured from the keel to the deck. The extreme depth is the depth measured at the ship’s side from the uppermost continuous deck to the lower point of the keel. The moulded depth is measured from the top of the keel plate (the “base line”) to the underside (that is, the heel) of the deck beam at the ship’s side amidships.

 

Dirty. This expression is regulary used in tanker freight market reports and refers to fixtures for “dirty” oils, e.g., fuel oil, lubricating oil and crude oil, in contrast with “clean oils”, e.g., gasoline, diesel oil, etc. A “dirty service” is the tanker transportation of crude oil and residual fuels. A “dirty ship” is a tanker which has been carrying crude and heavy persistent oils such as fuel oil. “Dirty ballast” is ballast that is carried in unwashed cargo oil tanks.

 

Days on demurrage. These are days by which the agreed number of laydays for loading or discharge is exceeded. In some charters a limited fixed number of days on demurrage is agreed, in addition to the laytime allowed. Shipowners are entitled to damages for detention if, after demurrage days have expired, further delay is experienced.

 

Distance freight. Cargo may sometimes have to be discharged at a port other than the original port of destination, for instance if a vessel runs the risk of being frozen in by ice and the master considers it prudent to deliver the cargo at the nearest safe port.

Daily operating costs. This expression covers the daily running costs of a vessel which can be expressed in a fixed amount per day and which are not conditional upon the quantity of cargo, service speed, etc.

 

Dock charter. A "dock" is an area within a port within which cargo can be loaded of discharged. It can be enclosed by "dock walls" or "breakwaters". In relation to chartering, a dock can be a named destination for the ship to be an "arrived ship" and laytime commencing under a voyage charter or hire commencing under a time charter. A dock, as a destination in a dock charter, is less specific than a berth (a place within a dock or port) under a berth charter and more specific than a port in a port charter.

Draught(also “Draft”). This is the vertical distance between the waterline and the keel. During construction of a vessel, the marks showing the draught are cut into each side of the stem and sternpost and clearly painted from a certain distance below the light draught to a certain distance below above the loaded draught.

Document of title. In modern international trade and shipping this is probably the most important characteristic of the bill of lading. A "document of title" is a document that enables the holder (the person who "possesses" it) to deal with the goods described in it as if he was the owner. "Title" is the right to ownership. "Ownership" can be explained as the right of using, altering, disposing of (that is, selling) and destroying the goods. This "ownership" or "title" can be transferred by a formal transfer of the document, such transfer being an "endorsement" and/or delivery of the document itself.

Dual rate contract. This is one form of a “loyalty contract” by which a shipper obtains an immediate lower freight rate by agreeing to use a particular carrier’s or conference’s services.

 

Delivery orders: At the request of shippers, consignees or endorsees, delivery orders may sometimes be issued by the agents of the shipowner for part of the goods shipped under bills of lading.

Down to her marks. This expression means that the vessel has been loaded to her maximum permissible draught, either winter, summer or tropical loadlines, as the case may be.

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