Dock charter. A "dock" is an area within a port within which cargo can be loaded of discharged. It can be enclosed by "dock walls" or "breakwaters". In relation to chartering, a dock can be a named destination for the ship to be an "arrived ship" and laytime commencing under a voyage charter or hire commencing under a time charter. A dock, as a destination in a dock charter, is less specific than a berth (a place within a dock or port) under a berth charter and more specific than a port in a port charter.

Delivery orders: At the request of shippers, consignees or endorsees, delivery orders may sometimes be issued by the agents of the shipowner for part of the goods shipped under bills of lading.

Despatch days. Days saved in the loading or discharge of the vessel within the time allowed under the charterparty may be called "despatch days".

 

Dual rate contract. This is one form of a “loyalty contract” by which a shipper obtains an immediate lower freight rate by agreeing to use a particular carrier’s or conference’s services.

 

Deductibles. Whilst there is no provision in the standard cargo clauses to apply any form of deductible, there is always a deductible expressed in a hull policy on full conditions.

Dunnage. Materials such as timber battens, boards, mats, plastic sheets, paper and even inflatable bags may be necessary to prevent cargo from shifting, to prevent sweat damage to the cargo and to separate different lots of cargo.

Documentary fraud. This occurs when a commercial party negotiates with a person who turns out to be dishonest and a cheat. A documentary credit may pay for the commercial transaction, for example, where an honest buyer opens a letter of credit based on negotiations between himself and a cheat. The cheat presents forged documents to the advising bank and is paid. The bill of lading features very prominently in documentary fraud because of its very great importance as a document of title. Because of this potential, alternative systems are being developed, such as the use of "sea waybills" and "EDI" or "Electronic Data Interchange" where data about the goods and the mode of their transport are exchanged by electronic means.

 

Double bottom. The double bottom, extending from the forepeak to afterpeak tank, considerably increases the safety of the vessel in case of serious bottom damage by grounding, which might otherwise result in flooding of the cargo holds or engine room. Moreover, the double bottom, which is subdivided into a number of tanks, is suitable for carriage of water ballast, fuel oil, fresh water etc., and increases the longitudinal strength of the vessel.

The double bottom tanks are accessible from the ship’s holds or tunnel by means of manholes, which are closed by watertight covers with bolts.

 

Daily operating costs. This expression covers the daily running costs of a vessel which can be expressed in a fixed amount per day and which are not conditional upon the quantity of cargo, service speed, etc.

 

Days. When a charterparty provides for laytime to be fixed or calculable this can be referred to a number of "days". The number of days is sometimes called "laydays" but this term is better used for the "Laydays and Cancelling" clause.

Dreadage or Dreading clause. Grain is usually carried in. bulk or in bags. In a charterparty for grain cargo, a clause can give the charterer the option to ship general cargo with certain restrictions, such as a minimum quantity, and exclusion of cargoes that may cause damage to any grain loaded.

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