Days. When a charterparty provides for laytime to be fixed or calculable this can be referred to a number of "days". The number of days is sometimes called "laydays" but this term is better used for the "Laydays and Cancelling" clause.

Document of title. In modern international trade and shipping this is probably the most important characteristic of the bill of lading. A "document of title" is a document that enables the holder (the person who "possesses" it) to deal with the goods described in it as if he was the owner. "Title" is the right to ownership. "Ownership" can be explained as the right of using, altering, disposing of (that is, selling) and destroying the goods. This "ownership" or "title" can be transferred by a formal transfer of the document, such transfer being an "endorsement" and/or delivery of the document itself.

Disbursements. This expression covers all payments made by the ship’s agents for port charges, stevedoring expenses, tug hire, customs fees, stores, bunkers, water, etc., on behalf of owners. The agents may charge a certain disbursements’ commission on such advances, e.g., 2½ per cent.

 

Dreadage or Dreading clause. Grain is usually carried in. bulk or in bags. In a charterparty for grain cargo, a clause can give the charterer the option to ship general cargo with certain restrictions, such as a minimum quantity, and exclusion of cargoes that may cause damage to any grain loaded.

Depth. The depth is the vertical distance measured from the keel to the deck. The extreme depth is the depth measured at the ship’s side from the uppermost continuous deck to the lower point of the keel. The moulded depth is measured from the top of the keel plate (the “base line”) to the underside (that is, the heel) of the deck beam at the ship’s side amidships.

 

Days. When a charterparty provides for laytime to be fixed or calculable this can be referred to a number of "days".

Down to her marks. This expression means that the vessel has been loaded to her maximum permissible draught, either winter, summer or tropical loadlines, as the case may be.

Date line. When steaming from West to East time is lost for each time zone. Conversely, when proceeding from East to West time is gained.

Daily operating costs. This expression covers the daily running costs of a vessel which can be expressed in a fixed amount per day and which are not conditional upon the quantity of cargo, service speed, etc.

 

Deductibles. Whilst there is no provision in the standard cargo clauses to apply any form of deductible, there is always a deductible expressed in a hull policy on full conditions.

Days on demurrage. These are days by which the agreed number of laydays for loading or discharge is exceeded. In some charters a limited fixed number of days on demurrage is agreed, in addition to the laytime allowed. Shipowners are entitled to damages for detention if, after demurrage days have expired, further delay is experienced.

 

Despatch days. Days saved in the loading or discharge of the vessel within the time allowed under the charterparty may be called "despatch days".

 

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