Salvage principles.  “General Average”.  The essential elements of general average were discussed based on the definition in the York-Antwerp Rules 1990 and in the Marine Insurance Act 1906.

Ship's papers

The documents, such as the ship's license, logbook, or bills of lading, that a ship must carry under international law and that must be shown on inspection.

Shifting boards. In older ships loading grain in bulk, all necessary and reasonable precautions were taken to prevent the grain from shifting by fitting shifting boards.

SWAD (Salt water arrival draught). This is a description of a vessel's draught in salt water when arrives at a port where the water density is that of salt water, that is 1025 kilograms per cubic metre.

Safe berth. This is a description of the specific place the Charterer can send the ship for loading and/or discharging.

Cargo plan or stowage plan. In the regular liner trade it is customary to draw up a stowage plan, showing in different colours the part of the ship in which the various parcels have been stowed, stating at the same time marks and destination.

Said to weigh. Under the Hague Rules or Hague-Visby Rules, the carriers issue bills of lading showing either the quantity or weight, as the case may be, as furnished in writing by the shipper on the understanding that the carrier is not bound to state or show in the bills of lading arty quantity or weight which he has reasonable ground to suspect is not accurate or which he cannot reasonably check.

Subjects. When a contract is being negotiated, one side makes offers and the unconditional acceptance of these offers by the other side creates an "agreement".

Suez Canal tonnage. The main purpose of the special measurement system is to establish criteria which determine the owner’s liability to pay Suez Canal tolls.

Subject details. This is one area of the law where American practice is very different from English practice and an area where considerable difficulty and complexity arise. Therefore some analysis will be offered.

Standard form bills of lading. Many carriers use pre-printed standard forms. These can be their own forms or standard forms issued under standard-form charterparties or published by certain organisations.

Supercargo. When taking a vessel on charter, it can be a practice for charterers to reserve the right to keep on board at any time and for any length of time a "supercargo", at their own expense, for the duration of the time charter.

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