Shippers’ councils.  When liner conferences were formed they represented the ocean carriers and whether or not they exercised monopoly power, they still presented a negotiating group that had strong bargaining power.

Subject managers' approval. For the shipowner this can be a somewhat troublesome qualification because it indicates that the charterer's negotiator has to refer all the issues to a third party to make a final decision.

Stevedore clause. A clause in a voyage charterparty may provide for the appointment and payment of the stevedores who carry out cargo handling.

Surf days. Laytime can be interrupted by bad weather and by meteorological conditions, which may interfere with loading and/or discharging.

Sub-letting. It is customary to stipulate in a time or voyage charterparty that charterers have the right of sub-letting the whole or part of the vessel on the understanding, however, that they remain responsible to the shipowners for the due fulfilment of the original charterparty. In the case of a voyage charterparty, sub-letting will probably take the form of booking other cargo by charterers.

 

Suspension of laytime. The counting of laytime against a charterer can be interrupted by bad weather and for other reasons. These are "interruptions", suspensions or exceptions to laytime. If laytime is not expressly suspended by appropriate words in the charterparty, it runs continuously.

 

Cargo plan or stowage plan. In the regular liner trade it is customary to draw up a stowage plan, showing in different colours the part of the ship in which the various parcels have been stowed, stating at the same time marks and destination.

Sets of bills of lading. Bills of lading are requested by shippers in a set usually of three “originals”, although in some Countries many more “original” sets may be required for different reasons, some commercial, some regulatory.

Spot market. When a shipowner or vessel operator wishes to use the vessel for tramping services, on voyage charters only, he is said to offer his ship on the spot market.

Supercargo. When taking a vessel on charter, it can be a practice for charterers to reserve the right to keep on board at any time and for any length of time a "supercargo", at their own expense, for the duration of the time charter.

Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.

 

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