Salvage costs. This expression includes all expenses properly incurred by the salvor in the performance of the salvage services.

 

Subject to insurance. This is one restriction in a charterparty that is not really relevant to the making of the formal contract in the same way that the other "subjects" are.

Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.

 

Suspension of laytime. The counting of laytime against a charterer can be interrupted by bad weather and for other reasons. These are "interruptions", suspensions or exceptions to laytime. If laytime is not expressly suspended by appropriate words in the charterparty, it runs continuously.

 

Strikes and Lockouts. When the loading and/or discharging are interrupted by hindrances beyond the control of either the charterer or the shipowner, the effect on laytime and on demurrage can become quite significant because of the cost of the loss of time.

Shipbroker. The shipbroker acts as an intermediary between charterers, shippers and consignees of cargo on one side and the shipowners or carriers by sea on the other. The principal functions of a shipbroker are:

Subject financing. This qualification can be used by a charterer to indicate that he is attempting to finance a transaction for which he needs a ship, for example, he wishes to purchase a quantity of bulk cargo such as sugar, and needs a ship to transport it. It can also be used by a purchaser of a ship before confirming that he can complete the purchase.

 

Subject to licence being granted. This term is used in negotiations as regards the chartering of a vessel at a time when owners are not free to commit their vessel for a certain employment without having obtained the approval of competent authorities. Consequently, a charterparty issued under such condition is not effective until such licence has been definitely granted.

 

Subject to strike and lockout clause. In a similar manner to "subject to dry-docking clause", this qualification indicates that the parties are in agreement to all the terms provided one party accepts the wording of a clause setting out the rights and responsibilities of the parties should the event mentioned take place.

Short form of bill of lading. These bills of lading are issued by shipping companies or agents, that is, carriers, and indicate that some or all the terms and conditions of the document which is evidence of the contract of carnage can be found in another document, the “long form of bill of lading”. This latter may be obtainable on request or can be inspected at the office of the carrier or agent.