Seasonal ports. Ports which are only accessible to ocean shipping during part of the year, such as ports in the St. Lawrence and in the White Sea, are called seasonal ports. Because of ice, these ports and their approaches are closed for navigation between December and spring.

 

Spot market. When a shipowner or vessel operator wishes to use the vessel for tramping services, on voyage charters only, he is said to offer his ship on the spot market.

Straight bill of lading.  This is defined in the United States Pomerene Bills of Lading Act 1916, section 2 of which states that such a bill of lading is “A bill in which it is stated that the goods are consigned to a specified person . . .“.

Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.

 

Subject to contract. In this situation, a formal contract has yet to be signed. However, the main provisions have probably been agreed during negotiations.

Subject to insurance. This is one restriction in a charterparty that is not really relevant to the making of the formal contract in the same way that the other "subjects" are.

Signed under protest. If charterers or shippers object to the insertion of a certain clause in the bills of lading, the master may sign the bills of lading under protest.

Salvage costs. This expression includes all expenses properly incurred by the salvor in the performance of the salvage services.

 

Subject to signing charterparty. This expression is similar to "subject to contract". The formal document has not been signed (or "executed") and the entire contract and its terms are held in abeyance until the signing.

 

Switched bills of lading. A country may not have diplomatic relations with another country but traders in one or the other may wish to have goods transported between these countries.

Shipowners. The owners of a vessel are the persons or companies officially registered as owners of the ship.

Shipper. In the U.S. Shipping Act 1984 the “shipper” was defined as: “an owner or person for whose account the ocean transportation is provided or the person to whom delivery is to be made.”

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