Sets of bills of lading. Bills of lading are requested by shippers in a set usually of three “originals”, although in some Countries many more “original” sets may be required for different reasons, some commercial, some regulatory.

Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.


Sheer. The sheer of a vessel is the longitudinal curvature of the deck from the lowest point on deck amidships. The average sheer of a general cargo vessel is about 1 per cent of the ship’s length. The sheer may increase the vessel’s reserve buoyancy. Sheer features in the assignment of load lines.


Signed under protest. If charterers or shippers object to the insertion of a certain clause in the bills of lading, the master may sign the bills of lading under protest.

Subject shippers' approval. Like the previous restriction, this is also a "condition precedent" which can cause the fixture to fail to be binding if the shippers do not accept the ship to load the cargo. Again, also like the previous restriction, this can require a third party's approval before a charter between the owner and the charterer becomes binding.


Subject managers' approval. For the shipowner this can be a somewhat troublesome qualification because it indicates that the charterer's negotiator has to refer all the issues to a third party to make a final decision.

Subject to . . . Many other examples can be cited of the use of "subjects" and both owners and charterers and their middlemen, the shipbrokers, do have considerable imagination to invent and introduce new situations which are meant to influence the enforceability of a time charter or a voyage charter.

Straight bill of lading.  This is defined in the United States Pomerene Bills of Lading Act 1916, section 2 of which states that such a bill of lading is “A bill in which it is stated that the goods are consigned to a specified person . . .“.

Suspension of laytime. The counting of laytime against a charterer can be interrupted by bad weather and for other reasons. These are "interruptions", suspensions or exceptions to laytime. If laytime is not expressly suspended by appropriate words in the charterparty, it runs continuously.


Subject to signing charterparty. This expression is similar to "subject to contract". The formal document has not been signed (or "executed") and the entire contract and its terms are held in abeyance until the signing.


Subject to contract. In this situation, a formal contract has yet to be signed. However, the main provisions have probably been agreed during negotiations.

Switched bills of lading. A country may not have diplomatic relations with another country but traders in one or the other may wish to have goods transported between these countries.

Salvage costs. This expression includes all expenses properly incurred by the salvor in the performance of the salvage services.