Switched bills of lading. A country may not have diplomatic relations with another country but traders in one or the other may wish to have goods transported between these countries.

Salvage costs. This expression includes all expenses properly incurred by the salvor in the performance of the salvage services.

 

Shipowners. The owners of a vessel are the persons or companies officially registered as owners of the ship.

Statement of facts (SOF). This is the document attached to a record of calculation of laytime used (the "Timesheet") and is a record of the events that can affect the counting of laytime.

Strikes and Lockouts. When the loading and/or discharging are interrupted by hindrances beyond the control of either the charterer or the shipowner, the effect on laytime and on demurrage can become quite significant because of the cost of the loss of time.

Subject to Government permission. This is another example, similar to "subject to shippers' approval", for a party other than the two negotiating parties, the owner and the charterer, influencing whether the parties can enter into the charter.

Signed under protest. If charterers or shippers object to the insertion of a certain clause in the bills of lading, the master may sign the bills of lading under protest.

Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.

 

Straight bill of lading.  This is defined in the United States Pomerene Bills of Lading Act 1916, section 2 of which states that such a bill of lading is “A bill in which it is stated that the goods are consigned to a specified person . . .“.

Subject shippers' approval. Like the previous restriction, this is also a "condition precedent" which can cause the fixture to fail to be binding if the shippers do not accept the ship to load the cargo. Again, also like the previous restriction, this can require a third party's approval before a charter between the owner and the charterer becomes binding.

 

Suspension of laytime. The counting of laytime against a charterer can be interrupted by bad weather and for other reasons. These are "interruptions", suspensions or exceptions to laytime. If laytime is not expressly suspended by appropriate words in the charterparty, it runs continuously.

 

Subject to signing charterparty. This expression is similar to "subject to contract". The formal document has not been signed (or "executed") and the entire contract and its terms are held in abeyance until the signing.

 

Shipbroker. The shipbroker acts as an intermediary between charterers, shippers and consignees of cargo on one side and the shipowners or carriers by sea on the other. The principal functions of a shipbroker are:

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