All purposes.  When laytime can be added together by the Charterer for loading and discharging operations as if one total time is specified to cover both operations, this is "reversible laytime" and is referred to as the number of days. far all purposes In a laytime calculation based on reversible laytime a specific clause must the charterer the option and the charterer must exercise the option after declaring that he is doing so. 

Articles of Agreement. This was the name given to the document in which the terms of the crew employment agreement was contained. Under some flags, the Crew Agreement is still called the “Articles”. The name came from the different paragraphs in the document, each one numbered as “Article 1”, “Article 2”, and so on. The Agreement was also sometimes called “ship’s articles” or “shipping articles” and indicated that the contract was between the seaman and the master. 


Antifouling composition. These coatings are for underwater use on hulls. They Contain poisons based on copper and mercury compounds. The poisons prevent the adhesion of organisms to the hull.

Anticorrosive paint. This is a special type of rust-preventing primer on a bituminous base. It is used as a primer for vessel’s bottom paints in dry-dock. It has two functions: to prevent corrosion and to bind old anti-fouling that has become porous because the antitoxins or poisons have escaped.


At and from. This expression in a voyage policy implies that where a ship or cargo is insured “at and from” a particular port and she arrives in the port safely with the intention of proceeding on the insured voyage when the contract is concluded, the risk attaches immediately.

Always afloat. In order to prevent a vessel from being ordered to proceed to a berth where she cannot load or discharge without touching the ground or a berth which can only be reached safely after discharging part of the cargo into lighters or which can only be reached on spring tidal conditions, the so-called "always safely afloat clause" is inserted in the charterparty. This clause may read as follows (as in GENCON):

Affreightment. This term is a somewhat old form of describing a contract to carry goods by sea, that is a "contract of carriage". 

API gravity. In the oil industry influenced by the United States the “American Petroleum Institute” scale of mass/volume is used.

Apparel. The cargo capacity may be defined in a charterparty as follows:

“... tons, not exceeding what she can reasonably stow and carry in addition to her tackle, apparel, provisions, bunkers and furniture.”

The word “apparel” relates to the equipment of the vessel such as anchors, chains, lifeboats, etc.


Arbitration agreement. This is an agreement by the parties to a contract (for example a charter )to submit all or some disputes between them in any legal relationship they may have. The "Model Law" adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in 1985 describes an "arbitration agreement" as follows:

Aground. The bottom of the ship may touch the ground in a loading or discharging port because of tidal changes in the water level. If a charter allows the Charterer to send the ship to a port where it can safely touch the ground it will contain a clause describing the ship as being ". . . not always afloat but safely aground . . ." (NAABSA)