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All purposes.  When laytime can be added together by the Charterer for loading and discharging operations as if one total time is specified to cover both operations, this is "reversible laytime" and is referred to as the number of days. far all purposes In a laytime calculation based on reversible laytime a specific clause must the charterer the option and the charterer must exercise the option after declaring that he is doing so. 

Articles of Agreement. This was the name given to the document in which the terms of the crew employment agreement was contained. Under some flags, the Crew Agreement is still called the “Articles”. The name came from the different paragraphs in the document, each one numbered as “Article 1”, “Article 2”, and so on. The Agreement was also sometimes called “ship’s articles” or “shipping articles” and indicated that the contract was between the seaman and the master. 

 

API gravity. In the oil industry influenced by the United States the “American Petroleum Institute” scale of mass/volume is used.

Averaging. "To 'average' means that separate calculations are to be made for loading and discharging and any time saved in one operation is to be set against any excess time used in the other." (Charterparty Laytime Definitions 1980)

Antitrust laws. When the liner conference system became formalised in the 19th century, one of the main functions was that freight rates on an agreed route would be fixed between the members to the conference. 

Arrest or seizure under legal process. A ship may be arrested for a maritime claim against it through legal action, as a guarantee for payment for damages. Before a ship can be arrested, a court must approve such action. The procedures for ship arrest vary between countries.

 

"Act of God".When some events take place preventing one party from fully carrying out his obligations under a charterparty and that event occurs without any human intervention, this person is relieved from any liability to compensate the other party to the contract. 

Arbitration agreement. This is an agreement by the parties to a contract (for example a charter )to submit all or some disputes between them in any legal relationship they may have. The "Model Law" adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in 1985 describes an "arbitration agreement" as follows:

AWRI Additional War Risk Insurance. This is an extra amount paid to the owner of a time-chartered vessel if the ship is ordered to a port or an area in which war or hostilities are taking place and the shipowner's insurers require an additional insurance premium for the vessel to be considered to be covered against risks in that place. 

 

Additional premium.This may be payable by charterers or shippers to the cargo insurers because of the ship's age, class or flag. The charterparty can provide that this extra premium is deductible from freight or from hire. The owner should attempt to qualify a clause with such a provision by limiting the amount of deduction and also by requiring the charterer to provide proper documentation as proof of the extra insurance before the deduction.

 

AH range. A range of ports between Antwerp and Hamburg in Europe. If the owner agrees with this range of ports he accepts that Antwerp and Hamburg are warranted by the Charterer as being "safe" but he may have to dispute the "safety" of any other port nominated within the range. This description of a range of ports is sometimes abbreviated to "AH.R".

Always afloat. In order to prevent a vessel from being ordered to proceed to a berth where she cannot load or discharge without touching the ground or a berth which can only be reached safely after discharging part of the cargo into lighters or which can only be reached on spring tidal conditions, the so-called "always safely afloat clause" is inserted in the charterparty. This clause may read as follows (as in GENCON):

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