Tug hampered by tow; 50 metres or more; astern < 200 m in length; starboard side.
Tugs are usually employed according to the practice of the port after taking into account the capabilities of the available tug types.
It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.
When berthing without tugs, it is essential that the effects of lateral motion are fully understood.
When a ship moving forward turns by use of engines and rudder alone, the effect of centrifugal force is to push the ship laterally away from the direction of the turn.
P&I Clubs do not directly insure the cargo for loss or damage but they do insure shipowners or managers for their liability to cargo owners for loss or damage arising while the cargo is in the custody of the ship. Many cargo claims are prevented by good maintenance, careful handling, stowage and transportation.
The bill of lading is a record of the quantity of cargo and of its apparent order and condition at the time of shipment and, as such, is a vitally important document. Cargo damage or shortage claims can result from errors in the quantity and condition of cargo recorded on the bills of lading.
Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.