Tug & tow; less than 50 metres; astern < 200 m in length; starboard side.
Tug & tow; 50 metres or more; astern > 200 m in length; port side.
When berthing without tugs, it is essential that the effects of lateral motion are fully understood.
When a ship moving forward turns by use of engines and rudder alone, the effect of centrifugal force is to push the ship laterally away from the direction of the turn.
It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.
P&I Clubs do not directly insure the cargo for loss or damage but they do insure shipowners or managers for their liability to cargo owners for loss or damage arising while the cargo is in the custody of the ship. Many cargo claims are prevented by good maintenance, careful handling, stowage and transportation.
Whenever there is a death, injury or even an allegation of injury on board, or in the vicinity of the ship, always inform the local Club correspondent, regardless of whether the injured person is a crew member.
The costs of repatriation of stowaways (as well as sick crew members) are covered by the Club. Repatriation of stowaways can be difficult, time consuming and expensive – always complete a thorough stowaway search before departure and always maintain a gangway watch.
Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.
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