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Free Draught Survey Calculation Program, Stowage plan, Notice of Readiness, Container Carriage, Letter of Protest (from our readers), Ship's papers, Ship inspection report and much more...

Tug & tow; less than 50 metres; astern < 200 m in length; starboard side.

Tug & tow; 50 metres or more; astern > 200 m in length; starboard side.

Tug hampered by tow; less than 50 metres; astern < 200 m in length; starboard side. 

When berthing without tugs, it is essential that the effects of lateral motion are fully understood.

When a ship moving forward turns by use of engines and rudder alone, the effect of centrifugal force is to push the ship laterally away from the direction of the turn.

It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.

Anchors are an effective berthing aid. Anchors can be used for berthing without tug assistance on ships without bow thrusters and, in an emergency, to stop any ship.

The bill of lading is a record of the quantity of cargo and of its apparent order and condition at the time of shipment and, as such, is a vitally important document. Cargo damage or shortage claims can result from errors in the quantity and condition of cargo recorded on the bills of lading.

The costs of repatriation of stowaways (as well as sick crew members) are covered by the Club. Repatriation of stowaways can be difficult, time consuming and expensive – always complete a thorough stowaway search before departure and always maintain a gangway watch.

Whenever there is a death, injury or even an allegation of injury on board, or in the vicinity of the ship, always inform the local Club correspondent, regardless of whether the injured person is a crew member.

Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.

INTRODUCTION TO DRAUGHT SURVEY AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES

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