An IMO system, introduced in 2000, to harmonise survey procedures and survey dates for all major ship certificates, instead of having different survey procedures and dates for certificates under different conventions.
The shipowner; each cargo owner (however many); the owners of the ship's bunker fuel (who are often time charterers); the recipients of the freight at risk (usually the shipowner or time charterers). Where cargo is owned by more than one party, each cargo owner is treated as a separate interest and bears his own share of any general average loss, no matter how small.
Statutory enforcement notices used in the UK (and some other countries) to enforce (chiefly) health and safety legislation. A Prohibition Notice prohibits an unsafe operation or the use of an unsafe item of equipment, and an Improvement Notice requires specified improvements to bring health and safety arrangements up to regulation standard within a specified period. Non- observance of their requirements leads to a prosecution by the issuing body.
Normally, the party who has made an extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure to avoid a peril (and who needs to recoup his loss), which in most cases is the shipowner. If ship and cargo have both been saved by a jettison of cargo, however, it may be the owner of the jettisoned cargo who appoints an average adjuster and declares general average. Generally, the party to the adventure who requires contributions from the other parties will be the one who appoints the adjuster, and the adjuster will give guidance on making a declaration.
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