A signed undertaking given by cargo receivers stating that, in return for delivery to them or to their order of the goods noted in the bond, they agree to pay the proper proportion of any general average charges (and salvage or special charges) which may thereafter be ascertained to be due from the goods. Lloyd's Average Bond form (LAB 77) is normally used.


Compensation for a salvor who has carried out salvage operations in respect of a vessel which, by itself or its cargo, threatened damage to the environment but where the salvor has failed to earn a reward under Article 13 of the Salvage Convention at least equivalent to the special compensation assessable under Article 14. It was introduced into the 1989 Salvage Convention as an incentive to professional salvors to stay in the salvage business, since so many were leaving it due to low salvage rewards failing to cover high salvage costs.

Except in the Panama Canal (see below), the pilot is an advisor to the master, without having command, navigational control or charge of the vessel. The pilot's duty is restricted to advising the master of local conditions affecting safe navigation. The master has full responsibility for the navigation and manoeuvring of his ship during all acts of pilotage. (Hence the bridge movement book term, "To Master's Orders and Pilot's Advice". )


The Baltic and International Maritime Conference, which has an international membership of shipowners, shipbrokers, agents and P&I clubs. BIMCO represents the views of its members and helps them avoid costly business mistakes. It publishes many well-drafted forms including charter parties and bills of lading, and publishes the journal BIMCO Bulletin. Website: www. bimco. org

Every ship becomes eligible for a periodic inspection as follows: (1) High Risk Ship (HRS): between 5 and 6 months after the last inspection in the PMoU region; (2) Standard Risk Ship (SRS): between 10 and 12 months after the last inspection in the PMoU region; (3) Low Risk Ship (LRS): between 24 and 36 months after the last inspection in the PMoU region. The time span for the next periodic inspection re-starts after any inspection.

A code number for the applicable control action. Examples are: 10: Deficiency rectified; 15: Rectify deficiency at next port; 16: Rectify deficiency within 14 days; 17: Master instructed to rectify deficiency before departure; 18: Rectify non-conformity within 3 months; 19: Rectify major non-conformity before departure; 30: Grounds for detention; 40: Next port of call informed; 50: Flag State/consul informed; 70: Classification society informed; 85: Investigation of contravention of discharge provisions in MARPOL.