A cargo underwriter's signed guarantee, given in consideration of delivery of the goods to their consignees without collection of a general average deposit.
Statutory enforcement notices used in the UK (and some other countries) to enforce (chiefly) health and safety legislation. A Prohibition Notice prohibits an unsafe operation or the use of an unsafe item of equipment, and an Improvement Notice requires specified improvements to bring health and safety arrangements up to regulation standard within a specified period. Non- observance of their requirements leads to a prosecution by the issuing body.
No. Several classes of vessel are exempt, including ships putting in solely for bunkers, stores, crew changes, pilots, medical emergencies or because of stress of weather or damage (as long as they do not earn revenue from the call). Many small vessels and harbour craft are also exempt. Ships in ballast are no longer exempt.
The shipowner; each cargo owner (however many); the owners of the ship's bunker fuel (who are often time charterers); the recipients of the freight at risk (usually the shipowner or time charterers). Where cargo is owned by more than one party, each cargo owner is treated as a separate interest and bears his own share of any general average loss, no matter how small.