Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK (27). (All except Canada, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and Russian Federation are EU Member States. )


The shipowner; each cargo owner (however many); the owners of the ship's bunker fuel (who are often time charterers); the recipients of the freight at risk (usually the shipowner or time charterers). Where cargo is owned by more than one party, each cargo owner is treated as a separate interest and bears his own share of any general average loss, no matter how small.


The verification, by a marine warranty surveyor, of the requirements of an insurer specified in a Warranty Clause covering a marine operation, to ensure that all necessary precautions are taken to avoid loss. A survey typically includes review of all relevant documents, condition surveys of vessels and equipment, and approval of marine operations.

AB: American Bureau of Shipping; BV: Bureau Veritas; GL: Germanischer Lloyd; LR: Lloyd's Register; NV: Det Norske Veritas; RI: Registro Italiano Navale; NK: Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. These are the classification societies authorised by the MCA to act as Assigning Authorities for load lines and freeboards. "DT" are the letters used by the Department for Transport (MCA) on the loadline of a modern unclassed UK ship.

A separate class of insurance cover offered by the P&I clubs against the costs of legal representation in the collection of freight or demurrage, or in the defence of claims by consignees, charterers, etc., and in connection with disputes with parties such as bunker suppliers, repairers, ship suppliers, etc. Not all shipowners require FD&D cover as well as P&I cover.


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