Unless a private settlement is made between finder and property owner, the award is decided by a civil court having Admiralty jurisdiction.
Broadly, ships flying flags of Party States, when on international voyages. Each chapter (I to XII) defines the ships to which that chapter applies. Application may depend on type of ship (e.g. chapter X - High Speed Craft), or date of build (e.g. chapter II-1 - Construction - subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations), area of operation (e.g. chapter V - Safety of navigation), tonnage (e.g. chapter IV - Radio communications) or cargoes (e.g. chapter VI - Carriage of cargoes and oil fuels). Each chapter may also exempt certain ships from the chapter's requirements.
A rule in major IMO conventions that, when inspecting a ship flying the flag of a State which is not a party to the Convention, Port State Control Officers must ensure that the treatment of such a ship and its crew is not more favourable than that of a ship flying the flag of a State party to that Convention. For example, many States have not yet ratified or acceded to MARPOL Annex VI, but ships flying their flags will still be required to meet the requirements of Annex VI to pass port State control inspections.
International Load Line Exemption Certificates may be issued to ships of Convention size on international voyages in certain circumstances (see below). UK Load Line Exemption Certificates may be issued to ships which do not ply internationally or which are not Convention ships (i. e. are less than 150 GT or less than 24 m in length).
He should follow the average adjuster's advice, which will normally be to obtain Average Bonds and Guarantees on all sound cargo being discharged after the general average act, and to accumulate evidence required for the adjustment. The adjuster will make an estimate of the total value of the loss or damage and advise the shipowner of the rate of contribution required from each party.
Compensation for a salvor who has carried out salvage operations in respect of a vessel which, by itself or its cargo, threatened damage to the environment but where the salvor has failed to earn a reward under Article 13 of the Salvage Convention at least equivalent to the special compensation assessable under Article 14. It was introduced into the 1989 Salvage Convention as an incentive to professional salvors to stay in the salvage business, since so many were leaving it due to low salvage rewards failing to cover high salvage costs.