Do coastal States generally enforce their own laws on foreign flag vessels in their internal waters?

No, except where their “particular interests are engaged”, e. g. when an offence by a vessel affects the peace and good order of the port (including breach of customs and immigration regulations), or when the master of the vessel requests the coastal State to assert jurisdiction (e. g. when passengers are disorderly), or when a person other than a crew member (e. g. a stevedore) is involved, or when the vessel breaches local regulations on pollution, navigation, pilotage, etc.

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What is the territorial sea of a State?

In what circumstances do foreign flag vessels have a right of innocent passage through a State’s internal waters?