Give an example of the operation of implied authority in shipping.

In appointing a person as master of a ship, a shipowner gives the master implied authority to order tugs, pilots, provisions, fresh water, bunkers, etc. for the ship (i. e. all its usual requirements), in so doing bringing the shipowner into a contractual relationship with each provider of services or goods ordered.

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What type of agent is a shipmaster, and how does this affect his authority?

In the law of agency, what is apparent authority (or ostensible authority)?