How does a shipowner normally insure against third party liabilities such as oil pollution claims, cargo claims and personal injury claims?

By entering his ships with a P&I club.Β 

The only third party liability usually insured by Lloyd’s or London insurance company underwriters is collision liability, and this is usually restricted to three-fourths of the liability or three- fourths of the insured value, whichever is less. The shipowner therefore obtains cover for the remaining one-fourth from his P&I club.


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How does a shipowner usually obtain hull and machinery insurance in the UK?

What is P&I cover and where does the owner usually obtain it?