Subject to . . .

Subject to . . . Many other examples can be cited of the use of “subjects” and both owners and charterers and their middlemen, the shipbrokers, do have considerable imagination to invent and introduce new situations which are meant to influence the enforceability of a time charter or a voyage charter.


Further examples, which have been the source of dispute between the owner and charterer and which are somewhat self-explanatory, are “subject to superficial inspection”, “subject to survey” (used in a contract for sale of a ship and held by a court to prevent any binding contract for the sale) and “subject to war risks clause”.


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Subject stem

Subject to contract