What is a place of refuge?

IMO Resolution A. 949(23) – Guidelines on Places of Refuge for Ships in Need of Assistance – defines it as a place where a ship in need of assistance can take action to enable it to stabilize its condition and reduce the hazards to navigation, and to protect human life and the environment. It is, for example, a sheltered coastal place to which a ship which has suffered a structural failure may be escorted to by a salvor in order for a salvage and pollution-control operation to take place in relatively calm conditions. IMO is urging coastal States to designate places of refuge on their coasts.

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Under what circumstances should a shipmaster decide to divert for a place of refuge?

What intervention rights does a coastal State have where a ship on the high seas has suffered a casualty and poses a risk of pollution to the State’s waters?