What is meant by “extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure”?

Ordinary losses and expenses incurred by a shipowner in running his ship and carrying cargoes are not allowed in general average.

For example, damage done in overworking a ship’s engines while afloat, trying to prevent grounding, is considered ordinary, whereas damage done to engines overworked when aground, in attempting to refloat, would qualify in general average, since this is an extraordinary act.


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What is meant by “reasonable sacrifice or expenditure”?

Under the York-Antwerp Rules, what are the necessary elements for a sacrifice or expenditure to qualify as a general average act?