What might be the consequences for the carrier if cargo that should have gone under deck was stowed on deck?

The deck carriage would be a fundamental breach of contract similar in gravity to an unlawful deviation. The carrier would have no defences to a claim for loss or damage, and he would not be indemnified by his P&I club.

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A bus is being loaded on deck, for which an “on deck” bill of lading will be issued. Can the bus be stowed anywhere on deck?

What do the P&I clubs recommend owners do if they want to carry cargo on deck at their option?