Where the Hague- Visby Rules apply, what are the carrier’s obligations in respect of seaworthiness?

The carrier must, before and at the beginning of the voyage (i. e. up to the moment of sailing), exercise due diligence to:ย 

(1) make the ship seaworthy; (2) properly man, equip and supply the ship; and (3) make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers, and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation. (These requirements cover the three aspects of seaworthiness: technical seaworthiness; cargo- worthiness; and fittedness for the voyage. ) The vessel must be seaworthy only at the commencement of the voyage, which usually means when she leaves the berth, whether under her own motive power or with the aid of tugs.


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What does “exercise due diligence” mean?

In a nutshell, what are the carrier’s three basic obligations under the Hague-Visby Rules?