How can the master of a UK ship determine whether his ship is in a coastal State’s territorial sea?

By fixing the ship’s position and then checking Annual Notice to Mariners No. 12 (National Claims to Maritime Jurisdiction). This lists, for all maritime States, the width of the territorial sea (TS), contiguous zone (CZ), exclusive economic zone (EEZ), and (where no EEZ is claimed) fishery zone (FZ).

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What is a contiguous zone, and to what extent does a coastal State have jurisdiction over ships in its contiguous zone?

A UK ship is on passage through the territorial sea of another coastal State. In what circumstances may the coastal State exercise criminal jurisdiction over her?