What exceptions from liability does the common law allow a carrier, i. e. the “common law exceptions” from liability?

(1) Act of God; (2) act of Queen’s enemies; (3) inherent vice in the goods; (4) negligence of the consignor; (5) fraud of the owner or consignor of the goods; (6) jettison or other proper general average sacrifice.

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What is an “act of God”?

In what ways might a vessel be held by a court to be unseaworthy?